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Small hydropower assessment - A solution through hydra-HP software


Database Development
For statistical analysis, 10 daily discharge data for minimum two years was procured for 60 gauging stations within the rain and snow fed hydrological homogeneous region, area roughly defined between the elevations 2000m to 5000m. After the quality control checks it was found that 40 gauging station data is suitable for actual analysis. For these selected gauging stations catchments were delineated from 1:50,000 scale Survey of India toposheets and were digitized. In addition spatial data on geology, soil cover, land use, topography, drainage, precipitation, temperature and snow cover were also digitized. Fig. 1 shows the drainage theme of Himachal Pradesh.

The data analysis revealed that the distribution of land use clases are closely correlated with the geology and the soil cover in the study area. The soil cover map procured from Soil Survey of India describes total 96 units in Himachal Pradesh. On the basis of drainage property and depth these soil units were reclassified into 17 soil groups. The proportional extent of each soil group in the catchment was determined by the digitized catchment boundary. Step wise Multi-variat regression was applied, grouping soil types to give a parameter estimates of Q95 for each group. Nine groups of soils were defined in the final regression model. Using the parameter estimates for each soils group, grid of standardized Q95 were mapped at a 1 km by 1 km grid resolution for study area. Further, the standardized flow duration curves for the selected catchments were pooled into classes based on the Q95. For each class, the average curves were determined, resulting into flow duration type curves.

Small Hydropower Potential and details
In order to calculate the hydropower potential at a given potential site user is required to provide the dependable flow, the residual flow, the hydraulic head and the number of turbines. The Hydra-HP will provide the maximum power generation and net annual energy generation for a prospective site.



Software Capabilities
The Hydra-HP comprises of four key modules, these are;
  • Catchment Characteristics Module: This requires the user to enter the catchment boundary of the proposed site, defined by a series of coordinate pairs. The software overlays the boundary onto 1 km by 1 km grid of average annual runoff and a standardised low flow statistic.
  • Flow regime Estimation Module: This takes the output from the catchment characteristics module to determine a synthetic flow duration curve for the site. An interactive facility enables the interrogation of the flow duration curve providing value of flow from probability or vice versa. For gauged sites, ordinates of the flow duration curve may be entered manually.
  • Turbine Selection Module: This requires the user to specify the design flow and head conditions for the site. The software automatically compares these with the operational envelopes of eight key turbine types to select which are operateble under the stated conditions. The turbine type supported are; Pelton, Turgo, Cross Flow, Francis Open Flume, Francis Spiral Case, Propeller, Semi-Kaplan and Kaplan.
  • Power Potential Module: This calculates the power output for each selected turbine by relating the amount of available water to the manufacturers' approved flow-efficiency relationship; the available water being defined by the flow duration curve, the design flow and the residual flow requirements of the stream.
Conclusion
With the increasing demand for power the activity in developing small hydropower projects has increased in an effort to promote the use of renewable energy technologies. The inclination towards small hydropower has resulted because of the acute power shortage, environmental concerns and the dependency of the fossil fuels. The Hydra-HP is a rapid solution to provide reliable estimation of small hydropower potential at any given potential site in Himachal Pradesh. It will help in reducing the expenditure on hydrological surveys. The software is a useful tool for preliminary design and turbine selection.

Acknowledgements
The contributions made by the staff of Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Dr. A.K.Saraf of Department of Earth Sciences and Dr. N.K.Goel of Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee and Himachal Pradesh Energy Development Agency (Himurja), Shimla in carrying out the study are appreciated by the project team lead by the authors. The financial sponsorship from DFID, UK for the study is acknowledged with thanks.

References
  • AHEC, 1997 Development of Regional flow duration models for preparation of Zonal Plan for Small Hydro Power projects, UNDE-GEF Hilly Hydro Project of Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources, Govt of India.
  • Gwyn Rees, et al ,2002, Application of the Regional flow Estimation Method in the Himalayas, accepted for presentation in the FRIEND Conference to be held in South Africa.
  • CEH, 2001 Hydra-HP User guide and Technical Reference, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
  • Brochure on Hydra-HP 2001
Page 2 of 2
| Previous |


Small hydropower assessment - A solution through hydra-HP software


Database Development
For statistical analysis, 10 daily discharge data for minimum two years was procured for 60 gauging stations within the rain and snow fed hydrological homogeneous region, area roughly defined between the elevations 2000m to 5000m. After the quality control checks it was found that 40 gauging station data is suitable for actual analysis. For these selected gauging stations catchments were delineated from 1:50,000 scale Survey of India toposheets and were digitized. In addition spatial data on geology, soil cover, land use, topography, drainage, precipitation, temperature and snow cover were also digitized. Fig. 1 shows the drainage theme of Himachal Pradesh.

The data analysis revealed that the distribution of land use clases are closely correlated with the geology and the soil cover in the study area. The soil cover map procured from Soil Survey of India describes total 96 units in Himachal Pradesh. On the basis of drainage property and depth these soil units were reclassified into 17 soil groups. The proportional extent of each soil group in the catchment was determined by the digitized catchment boundary. Step wise Multi-variat regression was applied, grouping soil types to give a parameter estimates of Q95 for each group. Nine groups of soils were defined in the final regression model. Using the parameter estimates for each soils group, grid of standardized Q95 were mapped at a 1 km by 1 km grid resolution for study area. Further, the standardized flow duration curves for the selected catchments were pooled into classes based on the Q95. For each class, the average curves were determined, resulting into flow duration type curves.

Small Hydropower Potential and details
In order to calculate the hydropower potential at a given potential site user is required to provide the dependable flow, the residual flow, the hydraulic head and the number of turbines. The Hydra-HP will provide the maximum power generation and net annual energy generation for a prospective site.



Software Capabilities
The Hydra-HP comprises of four key modules, these are;
  • Catchment Characteristics Module: This requires the user to enter the catchment boundary of the proposed site, defined by a series of coordinate pairs. The software overlays the boundary onto 1 km by 1 km grid of average annual runoff and a standardised low flow statistic.
  • Flow regime Estimation Module: This takes the output from the catchment characteristics module to determine a synthetic flow duration curve for the site. An interactive facility enables the interrogation of the flow duration curve providing value of flow from probability or vice versa. For gauged sites, ordinates of the flow duration curve may be entered manually.
  • Turbine Selection Module: This requires the user to specify the design flow and head conditions for the site. The software automatically compares these with the operational envelopes of eight key turbine types to select which are operateble under the stated conditions. The turbine type supported are; Pelton, Turgo, Cross Flow, Francis Open Flume, Francis Spiral Case, Propeller, Semi-Kaplan and Kaplan.
  • Power Potential Module: This calculates the power output for each selected turbine by relating the amount of available water to the manufacturers' approved flow-efficiency relationship; the available water being defined by the flow duration curve, the design flow and the residual flow requirements of the stream.
Conclusion
With the increasing demand for power the activity in developing small hydropower projects has increased in an effort to promote the use of renewable energy technologies. The inclination towards small hydropower has resulted because of the acute power shortage, environmental concerns and the dependency of the fossil fuels. The Hydra-HP is a rapid solution to provide reliable estimation of small hydropower potential at any given potential site in Himachal Pradesh. It will help in reducing the expenditure on hydrological surveys. The software is a useful tool for preliminary design and turbine selection.

Acknowledgements
The contributions made by the staff of Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Dr. A.K.Saraf of Department of Earth Sciences and Dr. N.K.Goel of Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee and Himachal Pradesh Energy Development Agency (Himurja), Shimla in carrying out the study are appreciated by the project team lead by the authors. The financial sponsorship from DFID, UK for the study is acknowledged with thanks.

References
  • AHEC, 1997 Development of Regional flow duration models for preparation of Zonal Plan for Small Hydro Power projects, UNDE-GEF Hilly Hydro Project of Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources, Govt of India.
  • Gwyn Rees, et al ,2002, Application of the Regional flow Estimation Method in the Himalayas, accepted for presentation in the FRIEND Conference to be held in South Africa.
  • CEH, 2001 Hydra-HP User guide and Technical Reference, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
  • Brochure on Hydra-HP 2001
Page 2 of 2
| Previous |


Small hydropower assessment - A solution through hydra-HP software


Database Development
For statistical analysis, 10 daily discharge data for minimum two years was procured for 60 gauging stations within the rain and snow fed hydrological homogeneous region, area roughly defined between the elevations 2000m to 5000m. After the quality control checks it was found that 40 gauging station data is suitable for actual analysis. For these selected gauging stations catchments were delineated from 1:50,000 scale Survey of India toposheets and were digitized. In addition spatial data on geology, soil cover, land use, topography, drainage, precipitation, temperature and snow cover were also digitized. Fig. 1 shows the drainage theme of Himachal Pradesh.

The data analysis revealed that the distribution of land use clases are closely correlated with the geology and the soil cover in the study area. The soil cover map procured from Soil Survey of India describes total 96 units in Himachal Pradesh. On the basis of drainage property and depth these soil units were reclassified into 17 soil groups. The proportional extent of each soil group in the catchment was determined by the digitized catchment boundary. Step wise Multi-variat regression was applied, grouping soil types to give a parameter estimates of Q95 for each group. Nine groups of soils were defined in the final regression model. Using the parameter estimates for each soils group, grid of standardized Q95 were mapped at a 1 km by 1 km grid resolution for study area. Further, the standardized flow duration curves for the selected catchments were pooled into classes based on the Q95. For each class, the average curves were determined, resulting into flow duration type curves.

Small Hydropower Potential and details
In order to calculate the hydropower potential at a given potential site user is required to provide the dependable flow, the residual flow, the hydraulic head and the number of turbines. The Hydra-HP will provide the maximum power generation and net annual energy generation for a prospective site.



Software Capabilities
The Hydra-HP comprises of four key modules, these are;
  • Catchment Characteristics Module: This requires the user to enter the catchment boundary of the proposed site, defined by a series of coordinate pairs. The software overlays the boundary onto 1 km by 1 km grid of average annual runoff and a standardised low flow statistic.
  • Flow regime Estimation Module: This takes the output from the catchment characteristics module to determine a synthetic flow duration curve for the site. An interactive facility enables the interrogation of the flow duration curve providing value of flow from probability or vice versa. For gauged sites, ordinates of the flow duration curve may be entered manually.
  • Turbine Selection Module: This requires the user to specify the design flow and head conditions for the site. The software automatically compares these with the operational envelopes of eight key turbine types to select which are operateble under the stated conditions. The turbine type supported are; Pelton, Turgo, Cross Flow, Francis Open Flume, Francis Spiral Case, Propeller, Semi-Kaplan and Kaplan.
  • Power Potential Module: This calculates the power output for each selected turbine by relating the amount of available water to the manufacturers' approved flow-efficiency relationship; the available water being defined by the flow duration curve, the design flow and the residual flow requirements of the stream.
Conclusion
With the increasing demand for power the activity in developing small hydropower projects has increased in an effort to promote the use of renewable energy technologies. The inclination towards small hydropower has resulted because of the acute power shortage, environmental concerns and the dependency of the fossil fuels. The Hydra-HP is a rapid solution to provide reliable estimation of small hydropower potential at any given potential site in Himachal Pradesh. It will help in reducing the expenditure on hydrological surveys. The software is a useful tool for preliminary design and turbine selection.

Acknowledgements
The contributions made by the staff of Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Dr. A.K.Saraf of Department of Earth Sciences and Dr. N.K.Goel of Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee and Himachal Pradesh Energy Development Agency (Himurja), Shimla in carrying out the study are appreciated by the project team lead by the authors. The financial sponsorship from DFID, UK for the study is acknowledged with thanks.

References
  • AHEC, 1997 Development of Regional flow duration models for preparation of Zonal Plan for Small Hydro Power projects, UNDE-GEF Hilly Hydro Project of Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources, Govt of India.
  • Gwyn Rees, et al ,2002, Application of the Regional flow Estimation Method in the Himalayas, accepted for presentation in the FRIEND Conference to be held in South Africa.
  • CEH, 2001 Hydra-HP User guide and Technical Reference, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
  • Brochure on Hydra-HP 2001
Page 2 of 2
| Previous |