In India land records are maintained by district administration for deciding ownership and boundaries of land or property. The process of defining and determining land in favour of an owner is called registry of land. Municipal Corporation also uses the ownership information for tax collection. All land disputes come under the charge of Tahsildar, Naib Tahsildar, Kanungo and Lekhpal (Patwari). These officials assist Collector in resolving land disputes. Land records maintained on paper or cloths have preservation, updating and retrieval problems. Computerization is natural solution for all these problems. The government of India has already taken initiatives to computerize land records in the country. According to  computerization scheme was started in 1988-89 and extended further in phased manner throughout the country. At present the scheme is implemented in 544 districts leaving only those districts where there are no land records. So far the progress is concerned only five districts have completed computerization and Records of Right (ROR) are being issued to landowners. According to TV (television channel DD1) news Karnataka state has completed computerization of all land records in the state.
In the present paper we have designed and implemented Land Record System (LRS) by taking specific case of district Hamirpur of Himachal Pradesh. The design of LRS is extended to convert it into nationwide LRS and nationwide information system.
Need of Nationwide LRS
Land related terminology used by common man in India varies throughout the country. Land records maintained manually have different formats and use different terms to convey same information. Therefore, there is need to develop a uniform terminology and generalized database schema for land records, however the region specific local terms can be used for displaying information. Thus the backend of the database will have common structure whereas front end will depend on region specific terminology / language. Traditionally, an LRS is used to store ownership information and for tax collection purpose, however the same database can also be extended to include information satisfying the needs of district administration, state and central governments. The relevant information like population, soil type, crop information, literacy, sex ratio, rainfall, industrial, bank, transport etc. can be included in extended database. This new extended system may be considered as nationwide land record system / nationwide information system. The accessibility of this nationwide system through Internet will not only introduce transparency in government functioning but also solve a number of land dispute problems. The same system can also be extended for on-line sale and purchase of land or property through Internet.
LRS and its Extension – A Case Study
A study of LRS maintained manually for district Hamirpur of Himachal Pradesh was made and it was found that most of the terms used in land record register are derived from Urdu language. The following terms were in use: -
Number khewat ya jamabandi, Number khatoni, Naam nambardar, Naam maalik va ehwaal, Naam kashtkaar va ehwaal, Naam chah va deegar, Number hai khasra, Raqba harkhet va meejaach, Lagan jo mujara adaa karta hai, Hissa ya paimana haqiyat, Mutalba va sharah muamla, Kaifiat. ( a brief explanation of these terms is given in Appendix 1)
There was no criterion
of arranging records in the register. A number called A/C No. is
given to each new record as it is entered in the register. All other
information of the record is associated with A/C No. The format of
land records as used in register after converting Urdu terms with
their equivalent terms in English is shown in Table 1.
||Sub A/C no.
||Revenue Collector data
||Source of Irrigation
||Rent paid by culti-vator
||Govt. revenue rate