Design of LRS in Context of Indian Environment
S K Jain
Sr. Lecturer, CSE Department
National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur (HP) 177005 India
Professor, CSE Department
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology
Allahabad (UP) 211004 India
M M Gore
Reader, CSE Department
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology
Allahabad (UP) 211004 India
In India land records are maintained by district administration for deciding ownership and boundaries of land or property. The process of defining and determining land in favour of an owner is called registry of land. Municipal Corporation also uses the ownership information for tax collection. All land disputes come under the charge of Tahsildar, Naib Tahsildar, Kanungo and Lekhpal (Patwari). These officials assist Collector in resolving land disputes. Land records maintained on paper or cloths have preservation, updating and retrieval problems. Computerization is natural solution for all these problems. The government of India has already taken initiatives to computerize land records in the country. According to  computerization scheme was started in 1988-89 and extended further in phased manner throughout the country. At present the scheme is implemented in 544 districts leaving only those districts where there are no land records. So far the progress is concerned only five districts have completed computerization and Records of Right (ROR) are being issued to landowners. According to TV (television channel DD1) news Karnataka state has completed computerization of all land records in the state.
In the present paper we have designed and implemented Land Record System (LRS) by taking specific case of district Hamirpur of Himachal Pradesh. The design of LRS is extended to convert it into nationwide LRS and nationwide information system.
Need of Nationwide LRS
Land related terminology used by common man in India varies throughout the country. Land records maintained manually have different formats and use different terms to convey same information. Therefore, there is need to develop a uniform terminology and generalized database schema for land records, however the region specific local terms can be used for displaying information. Thus the backend of the database will have common structure whereas front end will depend on region specific terminology / language. Traditionally, an LRS is used to store ownership information and for tax collection purpose, however the same database can also be extended to include information satisfying the needs of district administration, state and central governments. The relevant information like population, soil type, crop information, literacy, sex ratio, rainfall, industrial, bank, transport etc. can be included in extended database. This new extended system may be considered as nationwide land record system / nationwide information system. The accessibility of this nationwide system through Internet will not only introduce transparency in government functioning but also solve a number of land dispute problems. The same system can also be extended for on-line sale and purchase of land or property through Internet.
LRS and its Extension – A Case Study
A study of LRS maintained manually for district Hamirpur of Himachal Pradesh was made and it was found that most of the terms used in land record register are derived from Urdu language. The following terms were in use: -
Number khewat ya jamabandi, Number khatoni, Naam nambardar, Naam maalik va ehwaal, Naam kashtkaar va ehwaal, Naam chah va deegar, Number hai khasra, Raqba harkhet va meejaach, Lagan jo mujara adaa karta hai, Hissa ya paimana haqiyat, Mutalba va sharah muamla, Kaifiat. ( a brief explanation of these terms is given in Appendix 1)
There was no criterion of arranging records in the register. A number called A/C No. is given to each new record as it is entered in the register. All other information of the record is associated with A/C No. The format of land records as used in register after converting Urdu terms with their equivalent terms in English is shown in Table 1.
After having a careful study of land record data the following seven entities of interest were identified: - Collector, Owner, Cultivator, Irrigation-Source, Plot, Revenue-Paid, Estate (a brief explanation of entities with their attribute level description is given in Appendix 2)
The old record (i.e. land record maintained manually in register) information like Account Number and Sub Account Number are added as attributes in the entities Owner and Cultivator. These attributes will help in tracing the old land records in register from computerized LRS.
The ER diagram as shown in Fig.1 explains the relationships among entities . To provide clarity of expressiveness only entities and attributes of relationships are shown in ER diagrams (Fig.1 & 4). See Appendix 2 & 3 for attributes of entities.
In order to develop nationwide LRS, there is need to develop a uniform addressing mechanism to a plot. The conventional hierarchical addressing used to refer a plot in different regions of the country is shown in Fig.2. In Fig.3 the same conventional hierarchy is shown except the general terms Division1 and Division2 are used in place locally used terms. Division2 can further be divided into smaller hierarchical units with the consultation of district and state level concerned officials. New entities of interest in the generalized nationwide LRS can be:
The schema proposed for nationwide LRS can be extended further to include information about basic amenities available in the town / village / district in a single database. The basic amenities can be education, health, entertainment, drinking water, bank, electricity, road, post office, telephone, highway connectivity etc. The other useful information like population, sex ratio, literacy, per man income, rain fall, crop etc. can also be included. This extended system will help district administration to have a close watch on balance development of the whole district and to convey latest data to state or central govt. for further processing. The state and central governments will use these data for macro level planning and to decide appropriate funds for various development activities. The exact structure of information for nationwide system can be decided only after consultation the requirements with district, state and central govt. level concerned officials. The entities in nationwide LRS can be extended to include new attributes required for nationwide information system, however few new entities will also be required to consider. The extension of entities to include new attributes will be as under: -
New entities of interest may be:
Ten useful queries have been identified in the case study. All queries have been implemented successfully and are listed in Appendix 4.The queries asked for an LRS will be subset of queries possible in nationwide LRS. The queries required for nationwide information system will further enlarge the list of queries. The possible classification of queries for nationwide system will be as under:
Fig. 4 Proposed ER diagram for nationwide LRS
The case study made of LRS for district Hamirpur (HP) is implemented using Access 2000 RDBMS . There are seven entity tables, three relationship tables (for many-to-many relationships) and ten queries in the implementation. One –to-one and one-to-many relationships are implemented using the concept of foreign key. OLE data type is used to represent map of a plot as an image. Forms are used for displaying results. Queries implemented are listed in Appendix 4. Welcome screen and results of few queries are shown in Appendix 6. Detail steps of implementation of database using Access are discussed in .
Conclusions and Future Work
Case study of LRS for district Hamirpur (HP) is implemented successfully. All queries implemented are working properly. Map of a plot is represented as an image using OLE data type. In order to make uniformity in management of land records throughout the country, the proposed nationwide LRS is very useful. The system is suggested for further extension to include information like population, literacy, soil type, crop, sex ratio, rain fall, school, hospital, bank, post office etc. This extended system can be termed as Nationwide Information System to satisfy the needs of district administration, state and central govts. The consistent structure of information can be made with the consultation of district, state and central govt. concerned officials. The system will help to the district administration to have a close watch on balance development of the district. The nationwide latest data will help the governments to make macro level planning for balance development of the country. The accessibility of the system through Internet will solve a number of land disputes generally take place in rural areas of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. It will also provide transparency in government functioning. The system can also be converted for on line sale and purchase of land through internet. There is need to have cooperation among various departments of government at different levels to take initiatives for developing Nationwide LRS / Information System.
In context of future work the present case study may be converted into applications as discussed in [21, 22], in context of Indian environment. At present case study implemented does not have internet accessibility. The accessibility of database through internet can be provided by generating web pages dynamically as given in . Instead of writing CGI program to generate HTML code, various forms of annotated HTML embed scripting commands included within an HTML document can be used. The popular approaches PHP, Active Server Pages, JavaServer Pages and Java Servlets are discussed in [15, 16, 17, 18]. In  a survey of tools required for data intensive web applications development is given. In  study is made showing that mod_perl, an Apache Server module can improve performance of CGI script at least 10 times by making persistent database connection. FastCGI  is also a solution to improve the performance of CGI.
The authors would like to thank Vikas, Aditya and Mahindra for collecting data and concerned district officials for cooperating them.
Collector EmpCode , E-name, E-FatherName, E-GrandFatherName, E-Address
Owner O-Code , O-Name, O-FatherName, O-GrandFatherName, O-Address, AccountNo
Cultivator C-Code , C-Name, C-FatherName, C-GrandFatherName, C-Address, SubAccountNo
Irrigation-Source IS-Code , Type, I-Location
Plot Plot-Code , LandType, Area, Shape, Map, P-Location
Estate E-code , E-Name, Tahsil , District, TotalRevenue
Revenue-Paid Receipt-No , Amount, Date, PayeePerson, Remarks
State State-Code , S-Name
UT UT-Code , UT-Name
District D-Code , D-Name
Division-1 D1-Code , D1-Name
Division-2 D2-Code , D2-Name
Reference-Point Ref-Code , R-Name, R-Type, R-Description
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