Subsequently during early 1995 the ORACLE 6.0 database on the unix platform has been introduced into land records. The data from file based database user ported to ORACLE database. During this time more stress was also given for capturing the mutation data for period updation of land records. As ORCALE provides a better flexibility strong security and auditing features are key features entered into land records computerization. Once again the multilingual feature was also extended through the GIST technology from dumb terminals.
During 1998 modern Windows based OS has gained popularity and Window 95/98 and Windows NT server was introduced into land records computerization process. Then the most popular application development tool, VB 6.0 from Microsoft was used to develop the customized data entry screens. Also the data from foxbase/ORACLE plat form was ported to windows platform. The GIST SDK from CDAC was used for multilingual support in the application. Since then application development for mutation data entry and linking the land records data with the registration data and issue of general certificates like ROR and caste certificate was given prime importance.
During the starting of the millennium digitization of cadastral maps were stated on pilot basis.
Computerisation of Land Records – Future Vision
The benefits of the computerized system include certainity of ownership, security of data, reduction in land disputes, improved conveyancing, facilitating implementation of land reforms programmes, better management of land, improvements in planning land related development programmes, support for land resource management, facilitating issue of copy of record of rights (ROR) to the owner and making the data available in a compact and readable form at any time. Other benefits include reducing the time lag in effecting mutations in the field and registers to permissible limits, reducing the gap in the level of updation of data in records and associated maps as the maps can be plotted instantaneously through high speed plotters, extracting all the registers that are maintained mandatorily as per rules through computers. Also the integration of land records data and the associated map data is possible through the advancement in information technology.
For instance, if a plot is identified in a village map, the computer can give the data relating to that plot by accessing the database instantaneously. Similarly aggregation of land records data and associated map data to produce higher level data is possible. For example, using the basic data on plots, it is possible to produce village data and the village maps. Similarly aggregation is possible at the tehsil and district levels also. Sensitivity analysis of the data wherever applicable is possible. For example, using the data on type of land, area and rate of revenue, it is possible to know the net effect of change of rate of revenue of any type of land on the total revenue. This will be useful for taking policy decisions.
This will be useful for easy and time availability of data at any desired location planning is a reconciliation of social and economic aims, of private and public objectives. It is the allocation of resources, particularly land, in such a manner as to obtain maximum efficiency. In this way, planning is therefore the art of anticipating change, and arbitrating between the economic, social, political and physical forces that determine the location, form, and effect of urban development. In the rural environment, the aims of the planners are similar, though the strategies for their realization will be different.
It has been realized from last decade that land records computerization should cater to the following activities.
Linking Attribute Data With the Cadastral Data
- Linking of attribute data with the cadastral maps through a GIS.
- As the existing village maps are not georeferenced, resurvey with the help of GPS may be taken up. This will enable us to produce maps with proper coordinate system.
- Issue of ROR is not the basic requirement methodology of distribution of the ROR to the public has also to be stressed.
- Development of portal that with the help of the Satellite based map and attribute data recorded so far.
It has been realized that the linking of attribute data as generated through data entry process has to be linked with the village map/cadastral map. This will indicate the boundary of the land unit along with surrounding features. It will also provide more information then the text ROR as issued now.
This linking of attribute data with maps can be performed by any GIS package. It involves basically two steps: porting of attribute data form exiting database like (foxbase/ORACLE/SQL Server) to the database to available within the GIS and liking of this attribute data with the maps.
The problems faced during this process are:
- The present day GIS packages are still working on the file based database bases. This makes the porting of the attribute data into a GIS a difficult task.
- For accurate analysis in a GIS the map should be well identified with any coordinate system. The village maps are not georeferenced.
- Multilingual support in GIS with CDAC Fonts/Activex Controls are also to be sorted out.
This has led to the conclusion that a resurvey with the help of GPS may be taken up. This will enable us to produce maps with proper coordinate system. The Aerial Photography supported with GPS may be taken up for fresh development of cadastral maps.
Service To People
Service providing mechanism is the key factor in success of any system. Present day INTERNET is the only technology, which is going to prevail for the future and is expected to be the only technology that will reach the mass.
All the recent GIS packages like Arc-info, Map info, Spans support the web based technology. They provide web servers to build dynamic world wide web pages that will allow user to access, query and visualize GIS information remotely using their favorite web browers. The GIS web servers use the HTML and scripting languages (EASI script in Spans) for development of applications.
Providing service to the people has to be stressed further through introduction of franchised cyber cafes. Right to access the data may be provided to public. The downloading of any document may be allowed on nominal fees.
With the introduction of cyber bill issue of ROR and other documents with maps of the land parcel through INTERNET on nominal fees will be the future of the land records computerization.
It is desirable to have properly georeferenced land records data and it’s integration with other land parameters for planning and decision-making. It is important that cadastral survey using latest technology may be done for the entire country.
Disputed cases in land titles should also be decided at the earliest. Computerisation process should integrate registration of land titles. Land laws/mutation process should be simplified for easy and fast implementation of computerization.