International Scenario :-
During the last decade, Canada Initiated two major programmes in LIS.
- Land legislation and information science of Maritime Provinces.
- Cadastere of due line implementation of Quebec Cadastere .
Main problem of implementing LIS in Canada is financial and interpreting property rights with surveyed land parcels.
In UK, National Land Information System (NLIS) was adopted. Under this programme 'DOOMS DAY 2000' with objective to survey the whole country by 2000 AID - for uses in wide area of net work.
In Newzealand, the Department of Survey and Land Information has 3 computers being used for automated processes.
- Automated Plan Register & Enquiry System
- Parcel Plan System
- Digital Cadastral Database.
Plan Examination Module (PEM) is under implementation for verification, maintenance and updation.
In Austria, Northern Territory Land Information System consists of a digital Cadastral map of the territory with unique parcel identifier to a textual database "MPPN & T"
The University of New South Wales has taken up programme in Thailand "Thailand Titling Pegant" with aid from World
Malaysia presents an interesting example of a developing country that is in the process of introducing new and innovative Land Information. The Malaysian Prime Minister's department has been instrumental in creating a data bank and Urban Information System in Kelang Valley, a system established to facilitate regional development, planning, monitoring and co-ordination. Growing interest in Land Information System has resulted in improved land administration.
In 1983, a tender was called for the supply, delivery, installation, testing and maintenance of computer system with supporting software and application packages on a turnkey basis to meet data processing needs of a computer assisted land surveying system in Johor state survey development, Malaysia.
More recently, the Malaysian government had convened a seminar on LIS in Kaula Lumpur. Here it was resolved that the Government should establish an Integrated National Land Information System and institute a central policy and co-ordinating committee to formulate and co-ordinate Information System development among the Federal and State agencies.
LIS in The Present Day Context
If we are integrating all the three cadasteres, it has to come through legislations as an Act of Law. For property Cadastere and fiscal Cadastere we can definitely use modern technology such as use of GPS System for demarcating village boundaries and Total Stations or EDMs for measuring land parcels and for plotting and drawing purposes, we can use computers extensively.
- Spatial data consists of parcel boundaries, size, area etc.,
- Non-spatial data consists of
|Record of Right
||Land use pattern
||Legal status of ownership
We have steep hills in the lower Himalayan regions and dead plains in U.P, Bihar, Gujarat & Rajasthan and undulating jungle-clad terrain in M.P., Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & Kerala interspersed with vast stretches of cultivation.
Scope of Photogrammetry :-
Aerial photography can be used with advantage to speed up but, photography has to conform to rigid specifications for accurate measurements. Tilt and relief distortion have to be within limits. Shadows and dead ground have to be surveyed by ground methods.
A neat model of 60% forward overlap and 30% lateral overlap-photographs, 23 cm x 23 cm covers an area of 1: 48 sq.km. on 1: 10,000 scale. For photogrammetric survey, the B-8 plotters with measuring marks of 70 microns could be used effectively. The accuracy depends on post-pointing and positioning of floating point on the marked models. In LIS, land parcel corners, if they do not appear on the photo, then this cannot be done with greater accuracy. Hence, LIS has always resorted to pre-pointing which ensures correct identification and high accuracy. Recently, Cyprus is resorting to LIS using GIS model. It is an island with most of its lands being plains. Most of our states, U.P., Bihar, Gujarat & Rajasthan are plains with vast cultivation. This model can be accepted using 152 mm focal length camera and 1: 10,000 scale photography; digital photogrammety can be used technically.
Such a survey has to come up with legislation. But then, who will give the legal certificate with regard to correctness of shape, size, area etc., on the ground. The greatest handicap with regard to photogrammetry is that you cannot do setting-out. Hence we have to have a right mix-up of both technologies - classical and modern. Further, in photogrammetry only random sampling & checking is done, whereas, in LIS, 100% checking is done.
For topographic details, we can have photogrammetric/graphic cadastere and for Land Parcels and village boundaries we can have numeric cadastere using DGPS and Total Station etc. Both the digital data can be merged on the computer and attribute data relating to legal and fiscal cadastere can be linked to the merged data through GIS software like 'Arc-info'
Those giving guidance, must become more familiar with conditions under which the systems will have to work. The problem is not simply technical. It is the human dimension that will determine success or failure.
Finally, whatever is attempted must be designed for the future as for the present. Maintenance is more important than initial system creation. The system should be capable of change with increasing levels of refinement of both the hardware and software and skills of the persons operating.
If India is to make a quantum leap forward, land information should lead to better decisions about the use of land and better management of resources.
- Parcel-based land information Systems by Mc Laughlin. J & Nichols. S (1987)
- Indian Cartographer Vol. XIV 1994