Geographical Information System of Bidar District.

Mr. B. G. Kodge. 1 , Dr. P.S. Hiremath 2
1. Head of department of Computer Science, S. V. College
Udgir (INDIA)
kodgebg@hotmail.com
2. Professor & Chairman, Department of Computer Sc. Gulbarga University,
Gulbarga (INDIA)
hiremathps53@yahoo.com

Published: November 2009


Abstract
This paper will help us to evaluate and visualize the statistical and analytical calculations, ratios of the past and requirements of future developments of Bidar district villages. The mapping of five different talukas (sub districts) including Bidar, Bhalki, Aurad(B), Basavakalyan and Humnabad is prepared with respect to all below said data attributes of villages in taluka wise. In this paper we have collected the data attributes like: villages names, villages population (distinctly for total, male and female population), primary schools, high schools, primary health centers, total area, transportaion (state and national highways, train) , rivers/reservoirs etc in spatial database from 475 villages of Bidar district in Karnataka state of India. With the help of all collected data, we are visualized the spatial database for geographical information system of Bidar district (especially for Panchayat Raj and rural development) [12].

Introduction
Bidar is a district of Karnataka state in southern India. The historic city of Bidar is the administrative centre of the district. Bidar district is a dry place and is one of the worst draught-prone districts in Karnataka. The district headquarter, Bidar, is a small town, with a majority Muslim population. Historically, Bidar was a part of the Bahamani Kingdom which comprised of Bijapur, Gulbarga, Bidar, Golconda.. The ruler of Bidar was Barid Shah. Bidar was later ruled by the Nizams of Hyderabad. After the formation of Karnataka, Bidar was brought under Karnataka State [16].

2. District Geography
The Bidar district is located in the northeastern corner of the state, near the borders with Andhra Pradesh to the east and Maharashtra to the north and west. Gulbarga district lies to the south.Bidar is 120 km from Andhra Pradesh's capital Hyderabad The district has five talukas (sub districts) are Bidar, Humnabad, Bhalki, Aurad, and Basavakalyan. Present day Bidar covering an expanse of 5448 square kilometers of land lies between 17.35 and 18.25 North latitudes and 76.42 and 77.39 east longitudes, The entire district forms a part of the Deccan Plateau and is made up most


Fig. 1 Location of Bidar district.

of solidified lava. In Fig. 1 the location of Bidar district is shown in Karnataka state and in India. The northern part of the district is characterized by expanses of level and treeless surface punctuated here and there by flat and undulating hillocks, black soils and basaltic rocks. The southern half of the district is a high plateau about 715 m above mean sea level and are well drained. The average elevation of the district is between 580 to 610 m above mean sea level. Alluvial deposit is normally found along the banks of the Manjra river and its main tributaries.

In fig 2. the each layer contains a spatial attribute, e.g. an administrative boundary or the location of a village, and a text or numeric attribute to be used as a label e.g. the name of the village, or the number of households above the poverty threshold.

3) Visualization Technique:
A picture is often cited to be worth a thousand words and, for some (but not all) tasks, it is clear that a visual presentation - such as a map or photograph - is dramatically easier to use than is a textual description or a spoken report. As computer speed and display resolution increase, information visualization and graphical interfaces are likely to have an expanding role. If a map of the Bidar district is displayed, then it should be possible to point rapidly at one of 500 Villages to get Villages information. Of course, one who knows a village's name (for example, Kamalnagar), but not its location, may do better with a scrolling alphabetical list.

A vector quantity V in three-dimensional space has three scalar values (Vx, Vy Vz,), one for each coordinate direction, and a two-dimensional vector has two components (Vx Vy) Another way to describe a vector quantity is by giving its magnitude | V | and its direction as a unit vector u. As with scalar, vector quantities may be functions of position, time, and other parameters. Some examples of physical vector quantities are velocity, acceleration, force, electric fields, magnetic fields, gravitational fields, and electric current [2].

One way to visualize a vector field is to plot each data point as a small arrow that shows the magnitude and direction of the vector. This method is most often used with cross-sectional slices, as in Fig. 2, since it can be difficult to see the data trends in a three-dimensional region cluttered with overlapping arrows. Magnitudes for the vector values can be shown by varying the length of the arrows, or we can make all arrows the same size, but make the arrows different colors according to a selected color coding for the vector magnitudes [5].


Fig. 2) Visualization of Cross-sectional slice layers.

4. Spatial Data Base
We can create thematic maps whereby the way the layer is displayed is determined by the values. We can also change other aspects of the appearance such as the type of the symbol and the positioning of labels. The NRDB Pro is a GIS tool used for developing and distributing environmental (spatial) database for the GIS of Bidar district [ 6 ].


Fig. 3 (a to f) Digitized and plotted map layers of Bidar dist.

The Fig. 3(a to f) are the different layers maps of Bidar district and it is plotted in NRDB (Natural Resource Data Base) a GIS tool, using the base map provided by NRSA (National remote Sensing Agency) Hyderabad INDIA. The Fig. 3(a) is a political boundary of Bidar District, (b) is a coordinate locations of 5 sub districts (Talikas), (c) is a political boundaries of five talukas , (d) is a longitude and latitude locations of 475 villages, (e) Manjara river in Bidar district, and fig. 3(d) shows the transportation roads like state highways and national highways in Bidar district respectively. Here we used the cluster method by which like records are grouped together. Usually this is done to give the end user a high level view of what is going on in the database [1],[3].

5. District statistics

5.1) Population
The growing world population is seriously increasing demands on earth’s resource of land, air, water and raw materials [4]. The visualization techniques or graphical representation of any records made us very easy to understand the any analyzed statistics. The table1 shows the male and female and total population (ie 1169705) of Bidar district in five different talukas [As per Govt. of India survey report 2004].


Table 1. Population of Bidar dist.      Fig. 4. Population of Bidar district.

As shown in Table 1 and Fig. 4 the population of Bidar district is increasing the demands of resource of land, air, water and raw materials.
With respect to the balancing ratio of the male and female population in Bidar district is as follows. Total Male population = 598032 Total Female Population = 571683 The ratio of 1 male to 1 female is 1 : 0. 955956


Fig. 5 Taluka wise excess male population

The Fig. 5 shows the taluka wise excess male female population chart. It is a very serous report generated by a query in spatial data base of Bidar district. And the male female ratio is seriously increasing the problems.

5.2) Education
Now days the primary and high schools education facilities are also the important resources provided by the government in every villages. The talukawise analysis of primary and high schools in Bidar district’s analyzed villages are described in Table 2 with the Talukawise information of the availability of the primary and high schools in the analyzed villages of Bidar district. According to the population of the every village the maximum villages are having the primary schools but not having the high school facilities. So Concern to the no of high schools with the ratio of all villages, near about 40% of the Village students till studying in the nearest village high schools. Total average of all the above fields Bidar district having 902 Primary schools and 163 high schools in 475 villages (as shown in table 2). There are four villages are not having even primary school in their own village.


Table 2. List of taluka wise primary and high schools.

5.3) Health

Table 3. Taluka wise Health centre in Bidar dist.

The table 3 showing the availability of talukawise primary health centres in 45 villages of Bidar district.There are total 48 primary health centres available in the 45 villages of Bidar district. With reference to these records of primary health centre are having very poor ration with the average of its population.


Fig. 5 Map of health centre villages

The following villages are having primary Health centre(s) : Dabka-1, Kamalnagar-2, Mudhol-1, Torna-1, Kushnoor-1, Santpur-1, Chintaki-1, Wadgaon Deshmukh-1, Hedgapur -1, Nittur-1, Beeri-1, Dongapur-1, Balur-1, Halbarga-1, Janwada-1, Chillargi-1, Kamthana-1, Hallikhed(B)-1, Bagdal-1, Andur-1, Mannekhelli-1, Dubulgundi-1 Khatakchincholi-1, Nirna-1, Bemalkheda-1, Changler-1, Hudgi-1, Hallikhed(K)-1, Rajeshwar-1, Mudbi-1, Kushnoor-1, Ujlam-1, Matal-1, Ghotal-1, Partapur-2, Kitta-1, Ghatboral-1 Muchlam-1, Belur-1, Warwatti-1 Hulsoor-2, Morambi-1, Mehkar-1, Bhatambra-1, Lakhangaon-1. The following map Fig. 5 shows name and locations of villages which are having number of primary health centers in Bidar district.
5.4 Forest.
Bidar Forest division is the northern most division of Karnataka encompassing the whole of Bidar district and 31 villages of the adjoining Gulbarga district. Forest areas of Bidar division are classified as Reserve forests, Protected forests and Unclassed forests.Bidar Forest division is having 43,592 ha. of Forest area including Reserve Forests, Protected forests and Unclassified forests. This area is about 8.5% of total geographical extent of the district. The break up of forests into different categories is shown in the Fig. 6 [ 8 ].


Fig. 6. Breakup of forests in different categories

An abstract of forest areas Range-wise in each of the above categories are given in the following Fig. 7.


Fig 7. Range wise categories of forest area

The total forest area of the division is 43,592.94 ha, comprising of 4,874.04 ha of reserve forests, 12,802.90 ha of protected forests and 28,881.00 ha of unclassed forests. Most of the RF areas are in Bidar and Humnabad ranges. Originally the forests in Bidar Division consisted of Dry deciduous and Scrub type vegetation . Over the years almost all the forest areas have been worked at one or more times resulting in large expanses of man made forests comprising mostly of Eucalyptus, Acacia auriculiformis, Glyricidia and miscellaneous species like Hardwickia, Albizzia, Azadirachta & Pterocarpus etc. Majority of these plantations are successful. Due to the sustained efforts of the forest department the forest cover in the district has increased by about 4% as reported by the Hyderabad based National Remote Sensing Agency [10].

Conclusion:
This paper “Visualization of Spatial Database for Bidar district GIS”, may fulfill the some information required for the further developments, in district/ talukas / village wise educational, population control, health, area information, political boundaries, maps, etc. related information. Now this project will helps us to think about to maintain the ratio of male and female population in Bidar district. Through the reference of this paper any one can show any live (geographical) data on screen by using the same methods of information visualization and data mining techniques. This can also used to evaluate the current developments and also for the further developments plans of Bidar district like in P.W.D. (for road developments), educational developments, Health departments, Rural and Panchayat raj department, Electricity boards, Telecom departments, etc. It is for the e-governance.

References:
  1. Jiawei Han and Micheline Kamber, Data Mining Concepts and Techniques, second edition, Morgan Kaufmann publishers, San Francisco 2006.
  2. Donald Hearn, M.Paulin Baker, Computer Graphics C version second edition, Pearson education , Singapore 2002.
  3. Michael J.A. Berry and Gordon S. Linoff, Data Mining Techniques, second edition, Wiley Publishing Inc., USA 2004.
  4. Peter A.Burrough and Rachael A. McDonell, Principles of Geographical Information Systems, Oxford University Press, New York 2000.
  5. Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations Ben Shneiderman Department of Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory, and Institute for Systems Research University of MarylandCollege Park, Maryland 20742 USA.
  6. T.V. Ramachandra and B.V. Shruti, Wind energy potential mapping in Karnataka, India, using GIS, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 46, Issues 9-10, June 2005, Pages 1561-1578

  7. Web References:
  8. http://nitpu3.kar.nic.in/samanyamahiti/smkan_0203/smahiti1.htm
  9. http://bidar.nic.in/generalfeatures/forest.html
  10. http://www.kar.nic.in/dio/bidar.htm
  11. http://www.nrsa.gov.in/rsgisweb/vrc/vrc1.htm
  12. http://www.nrdb.co.uk/forum/index.php?action=vthread&forum=12&topic.
  13. http://stg1.kar.nic.in/samanyamahiti/SMEnglish_0405/default.htm
  14. http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov/worldwind-nosa-1.3.html
  15. http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/explorer/index.html
  16. http://www.maplandia.com/india/karnataka/bidar.htm
  17. http://genealogy.wikia.com/wiki/Bidar_district
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