Application of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System for land use / land cover mapping and change detection in the rural urban fringe area of Enschede city, The Netherlands
R. K. Nigam Division of
Urban Survey Planning and Management Department of Land Resource &
Urban Sciences International Institute For Aerospace Survey And Earth
Sciences (ITC) Enschede, The Netherlands
Abstract Management and planning of urban
space requires spatially accurate and timely information on land use and
changing pattern. Monitoring provides the planners and decision-makers with
required information about the current state of development and the nature of
changes that have occurred.Remote sensing and Geographical Information system
(GIS) provides vital tools which can be applied in the analysis at the district
and as well, as the city level. Remote sensing becomes useful because it
provides synoptic view and multi- temporal Land uses / Land cover data that are
often required. Though often used only for identifying objects.This study
evaluates the effectiveness of High-Resolution satellite data and computer aided
GIS techniques in assessing the land use change dynamics with in the study area
designated Enschede City, from 1993 to 1998. The methodology adopted involved
the Visual interpretation of land use on acetate overlays according to the land
use classification. Satellite images were used for the year 1993 and 1996 at
scale 1:25000. A minimum delineation unit of 5 mm x 5 mm was used for mapping.
Data was then digitised using ILWIS, the by creating a digital database for
further analysis. Subsequently land use maps were crossed with each other to
identify and quantify the land use changes types. Finally, Hot links and User
Interface was developed so that the information can be provided to the user with
a well-documented procedure. The system in this case will be operated from Arc /
Introduction Urbanisation Urbanisation is
the process in which the number of people living in city increases compared with
the number of people living in rural areas. A country is considered to be
urbanised when over 50% of its population live in urban areas. During the
industrial revolution in 1851, the first countries to become urbanised were
Great Britain and some other European countries. The urbanisation process in the
Netherlands has traditionally been dominated by the housing sector. Recent
discussions on spatial planning on a national level, tend to focus on the
construction of one million new residences for the coming decades, rather than
considering our living environment as the departure point. To fulfil the above
requirement, the rural urban fringe of the eastern part of the Enschede City is
chosen for the further development. Urban land features change in both central
urban area and in urban-rural fringe. Urbanisation process changed the regional
social and economic activities and generates the urban impact on the natural
environment. To detect the dynamic land use / land cover changes, analyse the
social and cultural impacts, evaluate the influence of those changes to natural
environment will increase our knowledge of understanding of human-environment
interactions. Remote Sensing as Monitoring Technique> Urban planning requires
data on changing land use, urban sprawl and the environment. This leads to the
needs for monitoring by updating the knowledge to support the decision making at
the suitably frequent intervals. Monitoring of the land use / land cover
requires the support of two parameters-spatial resolution and temporal
frequencies. Based on these two properties, Townshed (1977) has defined four of
phenomena to be monitored and consequently four types of monitoring system. The
relationship among four types of phenomena and monitoring system can be
Rapid changes of large object .For this a low spatial resolution and high
temporal frequencies are required.
Rapid changes of small objects. These require both high spatial and temporal
Slow changes of large objects. This needs a low temporal frequency and low
Slow changes of small objects. For this a high spatial resolution are
required and low temporal resolution are required.
GEO - Information
for Monitoring Land Use and Land Cover Changes The Research Objectives The main
objective is to monitor the land use / land cover changes during the period
1993-96-1998 from satellite images of Enschede, The Netherlands, within the
frame of this broad objectives of the study are:
Identification and delineation of different land use/land cover categories
using high-resolution remote sensing data and rectified aerial photographs.
To generate the statistics of the changes occur in the area in various land
use/ land cover categories during the period 1993 to year 1996 and from 1996 to
To develop a User interface and Hot links and allow accessing the required
Study Area The term "rural urban fringe " may from an operational point
of view, be defined as an area of transition between well recognised urban land
uses and the area devoted to agricultural [Kurtz & Eicher 1958]. In other
words, it is the area of mixed urban and rural land uses between the points
where the entire range of the city services ceases to be available and the point
where agricultural land uses began to predominate. There is absence of a clear
break between rural and urban condition measured both in terms of land use and
of the social organisation [Johnson 1972]. This study concentrates on the
eastern part rural urban fringe of the Enschede City. The location of the study
area is 006°54¢ to 007° 25¢ East Longitude and 052°12¢ to 052° 55¢ North
Data base Following data sets were used to carry out
the study. For 1998, data was collected from field survey only.
Topographical Map of Enschede city and its Environs. Year:
1993 Number: 34 F Scale: 1: 25000
Guide map of Enschede City and its Environs. Scale: 1:12500
Software / Hardware The following
software and hardware are used to carry out the above study:
Arc / Info 3.5.1
Personal Computer Pentium
Scanner HP Scan Jet 11 CX
Methodology The methodology
adopted in the present study to carry out the details of the land use / land
cover mapping is given in the flow chart. However, the understanding of
classification, interpretation, delineation, fieldwork, final mapping and area
tabulation to facilitate this study is carried out in the following stages,
which are as follows:
Pre - Field Work
Land use / Land cover Classification .
Designing land use/land cover classification scheme based on the available
Defining the different land use / land cover classes.
Base map formation.
Preparation of base map on 1: 25,000 scale, all the natural and manmade
features like roads, drainage and landmarks were incorporated on the base map
for easy transfer of details from interpreted overlays.
Setting the minimum delineation unit (5 mm x 5mm)for classifying the
different land use/ land cover.
Visual interpretation of the Remote sensing data by using the usual clues
such as shape, size, pattern, texture, tone and associated features as well as
Transfer of interpreted information onto the base map.
A grid of 1cmx1cm or (250 Mts. X 250 Mts.) was drawn on the interpreted map
for marking sample points.
Marking of the doubtful cases on the map for field checking in order to
ascertain It's actual use.
Interpretation results of two database (1993 and 1996) are recorded in the
digital form by doing scanning. These scanned maps are digitised by doing on
screen digitisation to form a digital data base for computer based analysis,
which will serve the base for all the information regarding the land use/ land
covers statistics and as well as land use / land cover change analysis.
Reconnaissance survey to get a general idea of the area features environment
Checking of sample points .
Checking of unresolved cases. After checking the polygons they were assigned
in appropriate classification code.
Post Field Work
Finalisation of land use map is done after incorporating necessary
corrections and modifications after field check.
Scanning/ digitisation of maps which are updated during the field survey.
Land use / land cover change analysis.
Preparation of Final maps Tables and Charts.
Report Writing and Submission.
Data Base Formation and Land Use
Change Analysis Land use Analysis Since 1993 a considerable
change had taken place on the land use of Enschede City and its environs. From
1996 IRS image it was possible to delineate the major land use. The
interpretation was cross-checked with the aerial rectified photographs of year
1996. Regarding the land use for the year 1998, it was only updated by doing the
field survey. During survey main emphasis was given to the construction sites.
Table 4.1 indicates the total areas of different land uses for the three
consecutive years calculated from the data input.
Area in Hectares of Different
Land Uses 1993, 1996 and 1998
Stream & canals
Land Use Change Analysis A systematic
way of analysis for land use change is first to have the total area for the
different land use classes for the different duration and compare the two maps.
Accuracy in interpretation and measurement of these changes is important. Using
a computer program we can compare areas of different land uses cell by cell by
overlaying the two maps. This can provide the basic quantitative information
about the land use change that has occurred. A cross table showing the changes
from and to another class can be produced. A map of these changes can also be
obtained using computer programme.
Changes in Land Use from 1993 - 1996
During the period 1993 to 1996, 12.9 Hectare. of cropland, 24.1 Hectare. of
grassland and 0.1 Hectare. of wood is changed into residential. Therefore
residential land use increased by 37.1 Hectare during this period.
During the period 1993 to 1996, 4.4 Hectare. of cropland, 4.8 Hectare. of
grassland and 0.5 Hectare. of wood are changed into industrial. Therefore
industrial land use increased by 9.7 Hectare. during this period.
During the period 1993 to 1996, 26.4 Hectare. of grassland and 3.6 Hectare.
of forest are changed into Cropland. But during the same time 12.9 Hectare. of
cropland is changed into residential, 4.4 Hectare. of cropland is changed into
industrial, 97.8 Hectare. of cropland is changed into grassland and 10.5
Hectare. of cropland is changed into construction site. Therefore cropland land
use decreased by 95.6 Hectare. during this period.
During the period 1993 to 1996, 97.8 Hectare. of cropland, 2.6 Hectare. of
forest and 1.1 Hectare.of wood are changed into Grassland. But during the same
period 24.1 Hectare. of grassland is changed into residential, 4.8 Hectare. of
grassland is changed into industrial, 26.4 Hectare. of grassland is changed into
cropland and 2.3 Hectare. of grassland is changed into sport fields &
recreation. Therefore grassland land use increased by 43.9 Hectare. during this
During the period 1993 to 1996, 3.6 Hectare. of forest is changed into
cropland and 26.4 Hectare. of forest is changed into grassland Therefore forest
land use decreased by 6.2 Hectare. during this period.
During the period 1993 to 1996, 0.1 Hectare. of wood is changed into
residential, 0.5 Hectare. of wood is changed into industrial, 1.1 Hectare. of
wood is changed into grassland and 1.1 Hectare. of wood is changed into sports
fields & recreation. Therefore wood land use decreased by 2.8 Hectare.
during this period.
During the period 1993 to 1996, 2.3 Hectare. of grassland and 1.1 Hectare.
of wood are changed into sport fields & recreation. Therefore sports fields
& recreation land use increased by 3.4 Hectare. during this period.
During the period 1993 to 1996, 10.5 Hectare. of cropland is changed into
construction site. Therefore construction site land use increased by 10.5
Hectare. during this period.
During the period 1993 to 1996, commercial, water bodies, cemetery, country
boundary, major road, minor road, stream & canals, railway and institutional
remains the same. It means that there is no change occurred during this period
in these land use classes.
Changes in Land Use from 1996 - 1998
During the period 1996 to 1998, 10.5 Hectare. of construction site is
changed into residential. Therefore residential land use increased by 10.5
Hectare. during this period.
During the period 1996 to 1998, 2.8 Hectare .of grassland is changed into
construction site. Therefore grassland land use decreased by 2.8 Hectare. during
During the period 1996 to 1998, 1.3 Hectare. of wood is changed into
construction site. Therefore woodland use decreased by 1.3 Hectare. during this
During the period 1996 to 1998, 2.8 Hectare. of grassland and 1.3 Hectare.
of wood are changed into construction site. But during the same time 10.5
Hectare. of construction site is changed into residential. Therefore
construction site land use decreased by 6.4 during this
Designing of a User -
Interface Setting up and using Hot Links Another way to provide
additional information on a view is to set up hot links between features in a
theme and external files. Once a theme's hot links have been defined, clicking
one of the theme's features with the Hot Link tool automatically displays the
current land use (Ground Photograph) specified as the hot link for that feature.
User Interface Double click EIS icon
Conclusion Land use / land cover change analysis using remotely
sensed data has been applied to discover the trend of development of the rural
urban fringe of Enschede city. The city of Enschede is experiencing physical
expansion along with its horizontal intensification. Using COSMOS data (merged
with TM) of 1993 and IRS Pan data (merged with LISS-111) of 1996 coupled with
GIS technology can provide important information about the development which are
taking place in rural urban fringe of Enschede city and there by can play an
important role in planning and managing the city.The purpose of this study was
twofold. First to examine the land use / land cover changes which are occurred
during the period from 1993 to 1996 and from 1996 to 1998. Second, to develop
hot links and User interface allows accessing the required information to the
users. In spite of interpretation limitations due to the spatial resolution in
IRS and as well as in COSMOS data the land use change analysis shows higher
magnitude of change in Residential and Industrial land uses during the period
1993 to 1996, which constitute 37.1 ha. and 9.7 ha. respectively of the total
area change. Also during the same period 10.5.ha. of cropland is changed into
the construction site. During 1996 to 1998, 10.5 ha of construction site is
changed into residential and new construction sites have come into picture.
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