Urban Sprawl |
Fringe Area Development |
Urban Agglomeration |
Emerging Technologies |
GIS & government role in Public Systems
Software Engineer, Scientist in GIS & Remote Sensing
Lutheran Pet, Palakol- 534260,
West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India.
This paper introduces persons in fields directly linked with country and town planning to the scope, subject another challenge, and opportunities of comprehensive application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on public planning only a small part of comprehensive GIS application on public planning theory on monitoring natural environment can covered in this paper. To be through and complete on a subject that is now so extensive that would require many bundles of volumes. In this paper I have complied the use of GIS and its use and necessity in public planning to and for the intermediate future sustainability.
Micro level planning is a part of decentralised process and gained significance where hierarchy of functions and their inter relationships at various levels in the context of overall development strategy could become possible with spatial and sectoral approaches. The spatial approach aims at identifying the spatial distribution and utilisation of local resources which are essentially required for fulfilling the felt-needs of the people and identifies the distribution parterres of the existing and required infrastructure so as to reduce the imbalance in the development perspective of the regions. The sectional approach attempts to adopt suitable measures to generate economic growth as an aggregate. The integration of both spatial and sectoral planning can bring objective development at the grassroots level (V. Madhava Rao & Rejeinder R Hermon, 1998).
A nation social fastened depends on that nation's economic status, nation's resources (natural and un-natural), their organisation, and developmental programmes. The well known nation, the Republic of India as "the uterus of gems" from the ancient time, which have completed fifty-five years of independence, though the country has not stood along with the developed countries on the globe, for this what the cause, is the fault of path of particularise or the lack of prescribed determination, for this we have lot of necessity to re-assume ourselves. If the way back into the pages of post Independence period, for the creation of resources and spread it as over the spatial distribution planning commission was set up in the year of 1950, which was the only a advisory committee for recommended various projects, but without the responsible for their implementation.
Basically the Planning Commission was set by the following duties:
If we have observed the Indian planning, we can't visualise the way of leadership with right decisions, this could be because, lack of right information system in a right path. For example in first five year plan 1, 960 Cr. were allotted (In the beginning the total amount declared as 2, 069 Cr., but because of some reasons this amount was reduced). In this plan in the order of importance, 647 Cr. were invested on irrigation & power projects, in the second order of importance 354 Cr. were invested on agriculture and in he third order 188 Cr. were invested on industrial sector and minerals excavation.
To assessing the total natural resources and human resources.
- To develop the resources which are in availability.
- To identify the obstacles which are making the problems in country's development.
- To identify the various sectors according to their rate of high productivity through the various plans.
- To develop the fast successive plans in the order of evolution.
- To consider the nations social, economic, situation and to make the recommendations compiled with various magnitudes.
In these first five-year plan national incomes was grown upto 19.3%, and during this period for every year (1951-56) 3.5% growth rate greater than earlier year. Likewise in the second five year plan, the rate of agriculture was 568 Cr., irrigation and power sector rate 931 Cr. and industrial sector having 890 Cr., what the here observable thing is, in the second plan increased the amount on industrial sector than the first plan with the rate of 702 Cr. According Prithwish Kumar Roy, Somanath Mukerjee, 1994 "The major strategy followed in this plan was not very clear, but agricultural development taken as a way out for future industrial development. But what the important thing in both the plans the policy makers given the highest priority to economic achievement than the social achievement. Its may be, during that period agricultural is may important, but in thought of policy makers they concentrated on to develop the industrial sector through by achieve the high productivity, and that policy makers ignore the importance of to develop the social intelligence. This may be occurred due to lack of information economy. Above-mentioned issues are only examples for what the nations like India having present status.
From the global view, the second biggest and largest continent of Africa, which is occupies the 28% land on the globe. Since the land is the basic ingredient for the food, water, fuels, fibber, and for the shelter. The land of Africa is the home of enormous, endowed of abundant natural resources, and have great capacity to export to, other countries, but still now the land of human origin spends their annual income of 90%. For food to import from other countries. According to many of the scholars, international organisations the lack of information on availability location and distribution of natural resources and the capability to monitor the progress and impact of development projects is the single most important weakness in the effort of Africa to develop. (Potter, 1969; Masser, 1974; maboganje, 1978; Ouedraogo, 1980; kalensky et al., 1980; Hood, 1982; barrett, 1982; Baxter and Ouedraogo, 1983; Peter O. Adeniyi, 1985).
Within the last two decades many African countries have embarked on the importation of fertiliser in a bid to increase agricultural productivity. New crop varieties have been introduced. Several irrigation projects have been (and are being) established, new housing and urban planning models have been tried. Since all these have largely taken place without comprehensive, spatial, and compatible temporal resource information, several of the projects have failed (e.g. the famous East African groundnut scheme, the Gambian poultry scheme, the Mokwa project and the farm settlement schemes in Nigeria) (Peter O. Adeniyi, 1985).
Over the years, much system of policies and planning have been implemented by many governmental organisations at great cost, and only to end up being disappointing or under-utilised and failing to meet the organisations' expectations. How does this happen? Is there a common reason why governmental decisions don't always work? Indeed. Most often, lack of planning is the culprit.
"Nossain (1982), the growth of knowledge depends on the progress in the collection of data and the generation of information." All over the world, many country managers and policy makers make strategic decisions on infrastructure development and maintenance, to achieve the sustainable development in all ways. In many nations in developing region they also have to respond to specific pressers, such as rapid population growth and an expansion, rapid industrial development, pressure on environment, various productivity of agricultural sector, unequal climatic conditions, un planned spatial distribution of investments and many. Yet rarely do they have access to up-to date base-maps and systematic information on the extent and de-extent of above-mentioned issues. A reliable information base is essential for successful nation management and strategic decision making. Lack of information contributes to problems such as ineffective nation development programs and activities; un-economical and badly planned investment projects; poor functioning of various sectors of the country and various utility systems; and disregard of the country development badly impact of on the people of nation.
"Information on the other hand, refers to data (about objects, things or areas) that have been organised and processed. In this context knowledge (about objects, things or areas) because ordered information (Peter O. Adeniyi, 1985)."
All the above statements tells the any countries development depends on their human and information about various resources and its utilisation, which process is motivated by the that countries science & technology. According to UN conference on science & technology for development, which was held in 1979,August in Vienna (Austria). "Developed countries continue to dominate the field of science and technology to the extent that around 95% of all research and development are executed by them, while developing countries, which represent 70% of the population of the world, have only abut 5% of the world's research and development" (UN document 1982 A/CONF, 101/10,P. 3).