Urban Sprawl |
Fringe Area Development |
Urban Agglomeration |
Emerging Technologies |
Application of Remote Sensing and GIS tools in delineating Environmentally-Fragile-Areas (EFAs) for sustainable land use planning: A case study of Delhi Region
Dr. Amarjeet Kaur1, Venkatesh Dutta2, Dr. D. K. Chaddha3
Research Scholar, Department of Geography,
1. Head, School of Environment Management,
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University,
Kashmere Gate, Delhi - 110 006.
2. Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Policy & Planning,
TERI School of Advanced Studies, India Habitat Centre,
Lodi Road, New Delhi - 110 003. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3. Former Chairman, Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), Delhi.
Land is one of the prime natural resources. Urban population growth and urban-sprawl induced land use changes coupled with industrial development are resulting in unplanned use as well as misuse of land leading to conversion of useful land into wastelands. The changes of land use/land cover pattern over a time period control the pressure on land (Sengupta & Venkatachalam, 2001). The complexity of urban development is so dynamic that it calls for an immediate perspective planning of cities and towns (Sokhi & Rashid, 1999). For a sustainable use of the land it is essential that proper planning and monitoring be done. Timely and accurate information on the existing land use/land cover pattern and its spatial distribution and changes is a pre-requisite for planning, utilisation and formulation of policies and programmes for making any micro and macro-level developmental plan. Accurate, reliable and comprehensive spatio-temporal information on land use practices in a city is prerequisite for sustainable land management. Remote sensing offers cost-effective solutions to city planners data needs for both macro and micro level analysis of the land use planning leading to urban environment management. The better management and rationale use of land calls for accurate and timely changes in the dimension, nature, and spatial balance between exploitation and regeneration. GIS is best utilised for integration of various data sets to obtain a homogeneous composite land development units which helps in identifying the problem areas and suggest conservation measures (Murthy et al, 2001). In regional/urban development planning identification of types of ecologically critical areas and its orientation for future growth is important for balance land use. This type of planning will be useful to promote environmentally protected zones and other fragile land use forms. Latest information so obtained through remote sensing technology on EFAs would undoubtedly be of great value to various agencies like those concerned with land reclamation, soil conservation, and afforestation as well as for planning, selecting priority areas, allocating funds and executing reclamation methods on sound scientific basis (Kaur et al, 2001).
Delhi, the capital city of India, is one of the prime mega cities of the world. Situated on 28o30' North latitude and 77o00' East longitude, it lies at an altitude of between 700 and 1,000 feet (213 and 305 metres) and covers an area of 1,485 square kilometres. Situated on the Yamuna River (a tributary of the Ganges River) Delhi is bordered on the east by the state of Uttar Pradesh and on the north, west, and south by Haryana. The region has a tropical steppe climate. The general prevalence of continental air leads to relatively dry conditions with extremely hot summers. Monthly mean temperatures range from 14.3oC in January (minimum 3oC) to 34.5oC in June (maximum 47oC). The annual mean temperature is 25.3oC. The main seasonal climatic influence is the monsoon, typically from June to October. The mean annual rainfall total is 71.5 mm. Maximum rainfall occurs in July (211 mm). The heavy rains of the monsoon act as a "scrubber". North-westerly winds usually prevail; however, in June and July south-easterly predominate.