Municipal GIS : An exercise for Kolkata Municipal Corporation


Dr. Asit Kumar Sarkar
Dr. Asit Kumar Sarkar
Research Officer and Head
Digital Mapping and Gis Division
National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation
Department of Science and Technology, Government of India
Kolkata



Abstract
National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, has taken up a mega project in which the entire Municipal Corporation of Kolkata would be mapped at a scale of 1:5000 using digital technology.

The base maps for the atlas have been prepared by interpreting aerial photographs, which have been updated with the help of latest available high resolution satellite data. Extensive field works have been conducted to incorporate information regarding detail urban land use pattern along with available urban amenities and facilities. Thus detail information regarding administrative boundaries inside or out side the municipality in hierarchical order have been depicted in terms of municipality boundary, borough boundary and even ward boundary. Communication network in terms of roads according to importance (along with information like stretch of flyover / underpass), railways (surface railway and also underground railway), tramways, ferry services, etc have been marked with the help of appropriate symbol and colour. Amenities and facilities like places of religious importance, health center, bank, post office, petrol pump, milk booth, educational institutions, entertainment centres, other public utility centers have been precisely located. Altogether there would be 284 plates apart from other information in literature form.

The entire project has been executed by using GIS package. Hence in the next phase of the project it is proposed that exhaustive attribute information concerning Municipal GIS be included for purposes like query, analysis, etc. Thus ultimately the project would be of much use for authorities like Municipal Corporation, Police Administration, Fire Brigade, Transport and Telecom Authorities, and even retailers for opening up new establishment at appropriate site.
To be included in the technical session on Management Municipal GIS

INTRODUCTION:
National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, a subordinate office of Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, basically prepares different types of thematic maps and atlases. It includes preparation of town and city maps in sheet form and also in monograph format, where detail urban morphology is depicted along with appropriate interpretation. So far as Kolkata Municipal corporation is concerned, the Organisation has already published maps for Kolkata Metropolitan District and also Kolkata Municipal Corporation. Moreover, City of Calcutta and its Environs, an Atlas published by the Organisation displays the changing urban growth scenario of the city.

MUNICIPAL GIS:
Municipalities posses legal status and power of local self government and manage their administration without any interference from any administrative authority. They are to provide municipal services to their citizens, which are variety in nature. It may be associated with sanctioning building plan, assessment of value of property and estimation of tax thereon, issuing of trade licenses for running various establishments, maintaining parks, etc. As a result, each municipality is to handle huge amount of data set for running their administration efficiently. Here lies the importance of Geographical Information System (GIS), which performs processes or tasks including input, storage, retrieval, manipulation, management, query / analysis, visulisation, etc. of data base. In case of a municipality, the information need to be kept at fingertips and also require regular updating. Moreover, availability of different urban services need to be presented in such a way that the user may visualize the same at ease.

KOLKATA : THE CITY OF JOY :
Kolkata, gateway to the great natural and industrial wealth of eastern India, is a city of paradoxes. In spite of exaggerated reports of its abject mistakes, Kolkata is better known as Lapierre’s City of Joy, where something is always happening : religious celebrations, concerts, soccer matches, theatres, movies, festivals or political demonstrations.

Although Kolkata has a rich heritage, the first impression about Kolkata may not be very flattering. Kolkata is beautiful in its own way. It is friendly city with a big heart. The survival spirit of this city gives hope to mankind. This city has been associated with many great men and women – from Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose to Swami Vivekananda, from Rabindranath Tagore to Mother Teresa, from Satyajit Ray to Amartya Sen. The city was the capital of British India till 1911, when the capital was shifted to Delhi. Still now it is the commercial capital of India. It is no exaggeration if said that Kolkata is India!

KOLKATA A TO Z: THE MEGA PROJECT OF NATMO :
Kolkat A to z is a mega project of National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation. In this particular atlas the city of Kolkata has been graphically represented depicting detail grass root information regarding existing land use pattern including built up areas, parks, water bodies, infrastructure facilities including railways (surface as well as underground metro railway), waterways, roads, lanes and also bye lanes, important land marks including monuments and statues, etc. The atlas contains 284 pages of maps on a scale of 1:5,000. Apart from map part, the atlas also contains an exhaustive list of index referring to street names, infrastructure facilities and amenities. The following information have been incorporated in the mapping part of the atlas :
  • Boundaries (municipal corporation, borough, ward)
  • Roads (according to importance)
  • Flyover
  • Railway line with station (main, circular, metro)
  • Tramways
  • Ferry
  • Bridges (railway, road)
  • Canal (with name)
  • Locality name
  • Important landmark
  • House number
  • Borough and ward number
  • Land use (built up area, park/garden/green field, water body)
  • Places of worship (temple, church, mosque, gurdwara)
  • Health center (hospital and nursing home, blood bank, clinic/dispensary/medical store, pathological laboratory/diagnostic center, eye bank)
  • Telecom (post office, post & telegraph office, telegraph office).
  • Educational institution (school, college, university, other educational & training institute, library)
  • Entertainment (shop & business establishment, cinema hall, theatre & public hall, club, hotel/guest house, restaurant)
  • Public utilities (bus terminal, railway reservation counter, airline office, fire station, police station, bank, market, milk booth, public call office)
  • Other facilities (tourist information center, places of tourist importance, consulate/deputy high commissioner, government emporium, monument, over head tank, KMC borough office, tram depot, petrol pump)
MAPPING EXERCISE:
So far as the preparation of the guide maps are concerned, the entire city has been divided into 52 sheets. These guide maps depict the urban morphology of the city based on large scale topographical sheets along with visual interpretation of aerial photographs. Extensive field works have been conducted to incorporate latest information regarding detail urban land use pattern, important landmarks and also available urban amenities and facilities. Field parties were provided with ward wise guide maps at scale of 1:4,000 for incorporation of above mentioned information. Ultimately these guide maps have been updated with the help of latest available high resolution satellite data. In the next phase all these base maps have been scanned and digitized in terms of line, area and point information using appropriate GIS software package. All the 52 map sheets have been exported into Adobe illustrator through the Map Publisher plug in so that CYMK film separates may be generated. In Illustrator, each sheet has been divided into 8 page format, with an allowance of 1.5 cm. overlapping for each page. Lastly all the pages have been composed to 20 formats for final off set printing, each format containing 16 pages. Thus there are altogether 284 map plates, the output scale being 1 : 5,000.

CONCLUSION:
The entire project has been executed by using GIS package. Hence in the next phase of the project it is proposed that exhaustive attribute information concerning Municipal GIS for Kolkata be included for purposes like query, analysis, etc. Thus ultimately the project would be of much use for authorities like Municipal Corporation, Police Administration, Fire Brigade, Transport and Telecom Authorities, and even retailers for opening up new establishment at appropriate site. Incidentally it may be mentioned that, the experiment in this regard has already been made by NATMO for Bidhannagar, a satellite township of Kolkata Municipal Corporation, which has also been included in this very project of Kolkata A to Z.