Accident Analysis of Shivaji Nagar, Pune


Mr.  Jayteerth Deshpande
Mr. Jayteerth Deshpande
Student
Symbiosis Institute Of GeoInformatics, Pune
jayateerth1@rediffmail.com

Mr. Sushim Bhiwapurkar
Mr. Sushim Bhiwapurkar
Student
Symbiosis Institute Of GeoInformatics, Pune


ABSTRACT
The accident rates per capita (or vehicle basis) in India are alarmingly high. The traffic condition in the city of Pune is no different. Since past few years, there is a steady and continuous growth of vehicles and in turn traffic. A total of 2001 accidents occurred in the year 2004 of which 348 were fatal, 278 were serious and 1383 were minor; claiming about 400 lives. Hence there is an urgent need to analyze the causes of accidents so as to minimize them. The advancements in IT and technologies like GIS and GPS can be put to effective use in analysis.

The objective of this project is to centralize the traffic data and other related data on a GIS platform. This has been done for Shivaji Nagar area of Pune city using ArcGIS 9. The data has been obtained from Pune Municipal Corporation and Pune Traffic Control Division. The accident records were obtained and analyze to find out the accident prone spots of the area and to suggest short term and immediate measures to reduce road accidents. Thus GIS will offer a platform to Pune Municipal Corporation and Pune Police Department to maintain and update accident record-database and use it for further analysis and planning.

INTRODUCTION
The development of urban public transport system has not kept pace with the traffic demand both in terms of quality and quantity. As a result the use of personalized transport, mainly two-wheelers and intermediate public transport is growing at a rapid speed. The disproportionate growth in the traffic vis-à-vis growth in road length, along with unauthorized encroachments on road space, lack of traffic and lane discipline and deficiencies in traffic control have contributed to the increasing problem of congestion in urban areas.

It has been estimated that over 300,000 persons die and 10-15 million persons are injured every year in road accidents throughout the world. Detailed analyses of global accident statistics indicate that fatality rates per licensed vehicle in developing countries are very high in comparison with the industrialized countries. Hence it is necessary to incorporate steps, which can reduce road accident rates and implement mitigating actions, which can be taken to reduce the number and severity of road accidents. (Baguley et al, 1994)

The advancements in IT and technology like GIS and GPS can be put to effective use in analysis. GIS has been used for over thirty years however it has only been recently used in the field of transportation. The field of transportation has come to embrace Geographical Information Systems as a key for technology to support its research and operational need. Moreover GIS helps to integrate and centralize the data required for analysis purpose. Also GIS would make analysis less consuming, less tedious which otherwise would become very labor-intensive job. Thus GIS will offer a platform to maintain and update accident record-database and use it for further analysis.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
The objective of this project is to centralize the traffic data and other related data on a GIS platform and to recommend the suggestions to the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and Traffic Control Division Pune on the basis of accident analysis done for a better traffic management and hence to reduce the accidents .

METHODOLOGY:

Data collection:
  1. Development map of Shivaji nagar and proximal areas from Pune Municipal Corporation at 1:10000 scale containing the road network.
  2. Vehicular density at all major roads was collected manually.
  3. Road properties which include: Road width, number of lanes, surface condition whether bituminous or concrete, presence of kerbs and parking space availability.
  4. Accident records from the Traffic Control Division of Pune including: number of accident, number of deaths in last year at that location and vehicle type viz. 2-wheeler, 3-wheeler, 4-wheeler etc.
Data Processing:

In order to model the mentioned factors and achieve the desired result, a step-by-step procedure as given below is adopted:
  1. Scanning the map containing the desired road network
  2. Georeferencing of the scanned map using the ground control points (GCP) collected manually in ERDAS Imagine.
  3. Import the georeferenced map to ArcGIS for Digitization.
  4. Digitize the road network with due considerations for separation of every link and assigned number and attribute to every link.
  5. The attributes containing the accident records of last year (2004-05) were attached to the respective roads as a separate layer.
  6. Now there are two layers viz. one containing geometric properties of all the roads of the area and the second containing past accident records were analyzed for accident highlighted roads and identified as hot roads.
  7. The reasons for accidents for these roads were analyzed which led to conclusion and suggestions to the Traffic Control Department and Municipal Corporation of Pune.
The Software Used was ArcGIS version9.1 and ERDAS Imagine 8.7, GARMIN eTREX GPS receiver was used to collect Ground Control Points.

Flowchart:



The thematic layers:
Before digitizing the road network, the map is needed to be georeferenced in a proper co ordinate system. The map was georeferenced by using the GCPs collected manually in the region using a GPS and input to the map using ERDAS IMAGINE.

Now the attributes are added to the map in two layers. The layer one contains the geometric properties of the road network assigned as per road names and they include:
  • Number of lanes,
  • Road width traffic density (peak hours and off peak hours),
  • Number of signals on that road,
  • Parking space availability,
  • Surface condition of the road etc
These factors are assigned various weightages and cumulative of all these points on a particular road will decide the accident proneness of the road. Less the points more is the proneness of the road towards accidents.

The second layer was created on the same road network but attributes assigned were the past accident records of year 2004(in this case).these records would help to decide accident prone road based on past record. The attributes considered are:
  • Accident type
  • Vehicle type
  • Number of deaths
  • Number of injured
  • Time of accidents (peak hours or off peak hours)
When these layers were combined the result would be the most accident prone roads in the region.
Thus this project utilizes the simple but powerful approach for thematic layers which helps in simplicity of the database and more user-friendly ness. Thus analysis becomes less complicated.

STUDY AREA:
The area chosen for this study was Shivaji Nagar, Pune. It falls at a latitude of 18º32’00”N and a longitude of 73º52’00”E. It characterizes the important landmarks such as educational institutes, Pune University, railway station, bus stand and multiplexes. Being one of the most important and congested area of the city faces frequent traffic congestion and hence accidents. Most of the roads of Shivaji Nagar are heavily encroached by parked vehicles, hawkers and road side business. This results not only in restricting the traffic flow, but also putting the road users’ life at great risk.

The traffic is the heterogeneous mix of all types of vehicle with irregular road pattern which increases the complexity of the problem. The roads here are generally poorly bitumen surfaced hence prone to potholes and frequent maintenance specifically in rainy season. This factor also adds to causes of accidents.

Hence there as urgent need for preparation of a traffic geodatabase which would help the respective authorities to manage the traffic flow and analyze and solve the associated problems immediately.

The advancements in IT and technologies like GIS and GPS can be put to effective use for this purpose. GIS is a powerful computing tool for managing large amounts of heterogeneous data. GIS can be effectively used to identify accident black spots on roads. The capability of GIS to link attribute data with spatial data facilitates prioritization of accident occurrence on roads and the results can be displayed graphically which can be used for planning and decision making.



Road network of Study area Shivaji Nagar, Pune.

CONCLUSION:
The crux of the problem of urban transport is congestion of traffic. These results in increased number of trips, increased journey time, travel cost, mental agony and reduced accessibility. Widening of roads is not possible due to the intense developments on either side of the road. Heterogeneity of the traffic is the perpetual problem, which cause severe congestion. This project gives an insight in to present scenario of the traffic condition of the area and gives out the most accident prone ROADS in the city. It can also facilitate spatial data sharing within transportation agencies and between transportation department and other government agencies. Thus helps the commuters to plan their trip in advance to save time and energy. This geodatabase in turn can be fed into “expert” systems and so provide accurate recommendations to vehicle drivers, the police, motoring organizations and of course, local authorities. The effect such systems will have on the traffic scene is too early to say, but clearly they will give planners and traffic authorities some breathing space when considering long-term objectives and likely solutions.

References:
  1. Baguley Chris, McDonald Mike, et al, “Towards Safer Roads in Developing Countries, A Guide for Planners and Engineers”, Transport Research Laboratory, 1994, pp 1-60
  2. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) Inc. "ArcGIS, version 9", 2004 New York Street, Redlands, California, USA.
  3. Sanjay Kumar Singh ,Ashish Mishra, “Road Accident Analysis: A Case Study Of Patna City”, Urban Transport Journal2(2):60-75