Monitoring Of Rain Water Harvesting In The Bariyatu Region Of Jumar Basin In Ranchi District Using Remote Sensing


Dr. A.K. Singh
Department of Remote Sensing
B.I.T., Mesra
Ranchi-835215
aksingh@bitmesrars.ac.in

Roheet Bhatnagar
Department of Remote Sensing
B.I.T., Mesra
Ranchi-835215
roheet bhatnagar@yahoo.com


Abstract
Remote sensing are presently being used for solving problems like degradation of land, by water lagging; soil erosion; contamination of surface and ground resources, changes in ecological parameter and many more. Watershed approach for optimum planning, development and management aims at harvesting all natural resources for sustainable development and better living. The are has tropical to subtropical climate with average annual rain fall is 1200 mm, but monsoon start from Middle of June to middle of the September. Most of the water zone run off its River system and very little of water store in subsurface due to hard rock Terrain. Population demand is not fulfill in regular so that conservation of water is pre-requisite for development. The area is covered by shallow to medium pediment. The Red and yellowish loamy soil is a product of weathered granite and granitegneiss of Archean formation. The medium to high slope (<20 m/km to 50 m./km) indicate low infiltration. Grain size analysis data have been taken from other Department of B.I.T. Mesra, and Geo-coded IRS LISS III and PAN data were visually interpreted in conjunction with other data to derive information on land use/land cover; plus pre-monsoon and post monsoon data has been taken for IGWD, Govt. of Jharkhand. In addition DEM and TIN model were generated for site selection of check dam and nala bandh for rain water harvesting in Jumar River Basin.

Introduction:
Remote sensing are presently being used for solving problems like degradation of land, by water lagging; soil erosion; contamination of surface and ground resources, changes in ecological parameter and many more. Watershed approach for optimum planning, development and management aims at harvesting all natural resources for sustainable development and better living. The are has tropical to subtropical climate with average annual rain fall is 1200 mm, but monsoon start from Middle of June to middle of the September. Most of the water zone run off its River system and very little of water store in subsurface due to hard rock Terrain. Population demand is not fulfill in regular so that conservation of water is pre-requisite for development. The area is covered by shallow to medium pediment. The Red and yellowish loamy soil is a product of weathered granite and granitegneiss of Archean formation. The medium to high slope (<20 m/km to 50 m./km) indicate low infiltration. Grain size analysis data have been taken from other Department of B.I.T. Mesra, and Geo-coded IRS LISS III and PAN data were visually interpreted in conjunction with other data to derive information on land use/land cover; plus pre-monsoon and post monsoon data has been taken for IGWD, Govt. of Jharkhand. In addition DEM and TIN model were generated for site selection of check dam and nala bandh for rain water harvesting in Jumar River Basin.

Study Area and Geology:
The study are fall in toposheet No. 73E located latitude 20o 25 to 23o 40 (N) and longitude 84o 50 to 85o 50 (E) and average elevation in center part is 600 meters above mean sea level. The climate is characterized by maximum 42 to 44oC and minimum 5 to 6oC temperature respectively. The Area form minor stream of Jumar River North west part of Ranchi district of Jharkhand state. The major part of the area is occupied by granite and granite gneiss phyllite, mica schist and vain of pegmatite of Archaen age. Red or yellowish soil/latesitic soil occur copping over flate topped hills residual weathering product of granite rocks. The rocks of the area are hard, compact and little porosity and permeability. Ground water circulate through opening like joints, cracks, fissure, and weathered zone.

Methodology and Data used:
The data provided by LISS-III and PAN Geo coded of IRS IC & ID of three years namely 1997, 1998, and 2004; The PAN data merged with LISS III is used in the analysis and study ARC GIS 8.3 packages and ERPAS Imagine 8.5 software has been used. Soil data has been collected from different organization and some laboratory data of grain size analysis has been done by B.I.T. Mesra of other Department. The rainfall data has been taken from metrological department; IGWD, Government of Jharkhand and run off potential has been determined using soil conservation service method. The data regarding water level in pre-monsoon and post monsoon has been collected from IGWD Government of Jharkhand.

Various digital image processing Techniques viz, band rationing, Filtering band Multiplication, enhancement, and classification has been used to analysis the digital data and geo-reference using ground control from Toposheet No. 73E. Landuse/Land cover drainage density and types of soil have been prepared.

The monthly rain fall data for four year are collected and Fluctuation of observation of wells at Bariyatu region of Ten years have been collected which is shown in Table No. 2.

Average Monthly Rainfall (Table 1)




The following data were used in the studies
  1. IRS IC and ID, LISS III digital data as dated 1997, 1998, and 2004 including PAN Data merged with LISS III
  2. Survey of India Toposheet Map (73E)
  3. Rain fall/Temperature data
  4. Ground Truth data for landuse/landcover
  5. Different soil/Boreholes data
Result and Discussion:
The application of geomorphology to hydrogeology, ground water, land use/land cover, soil science and Boreholes data. The geomorphological units as (i) valley hill, (ii) Piedmont and (iii) Residual hill.

Most of the rain water goes as surface runoff due to slope and nature of streams. The soil of the area are shollow to medium pediment. Lower port of loamy soil, resulting of swampy or water logging condition. The porosity of the soil varies from 14.56 to 18.26% and permeability of sandy soil is 3.10 x 10-6 cm/sec but silty clay is less permeable 1.95 x 10-5 cm/sec. Fluctuation of observation well of the area are given in Table No. 2



Image are classified and area are depicted as water/ water logged. For water logged area delineated NDWI approach.

NDWI:
Initially supervised and unsupervised classification were tried for water verses non water area, but they are not produce very satisfactory results. The, Normalized difference water index (NDWI) an induce similar to the NDVI using a set of Transformation as follows:

					GREEN  NIR 
			NDWI = 	                                                       (1)
					GREEN + NIR 
Where GREEN is a band that encompasses reflected green light and NIR represents reflected near infrared radiation. The important of these wavelength are (1) Maximize the typical reflectance of water features by using green light wavelength. (2) Minimize the low reflectance of NIR by water features and (3) take advantage of the high reflectance of NIR by Terrestrial vegetation and soil features. The equation (1) used to multi spectral satellite image that contains a reflected visible green band and NIR band, water features have positives values, while soil and Terrestrial vegetation features have zero or Negative values.

Resistivity data of Jumar River Basin area in year 2000 are given below:

1st Report of Jumar River Basin near Bariyatu region:

0 to 15 meters 		-	Top subsoil 
15 to 40 meters 		-	Weathered granitegneiss 
40 to 150 m 		-	Hard and compact granitigneiss (no fracture present) 
Water Table 		-	 Nil 
Not Recommended due to absent of water Table.

2nd Report of Jumar River Basin in south Eastern region by Resistively method.
The whole area is occupied by a thick layers of Alluvial sediments undulating by light weathered granitegneiss which may be fractured underneath the earth. The observation shows medium to good potential of water present here proposed bore holes recommended and water Table expected 6 to 80 meter depth.

3rd Report of Jumar River Basin up land in Bariyatu Region.
Thin layer of alluvial sediment undulating by weathered granite gneiss, consisting of Batholithic structure below the 40 meters depth. The observation shows hard and compact rock and no fracture found. Yield of water very poor. Water Table expected only seepage

Soil Science:

Specific gravity of sol sample U/D II/1 to U/D II/6 2.69 to 2.61 grain size analysis



Allowable bearing pressure = 29.12t/m2
Applying factor of safety = 3
Safe Bearing capacity = 9.71 t/m2 (tone/m2)

The densely packed clay soil drain low with comparison with larger soil particles, which is much more drain rapidly. The greater the soil moisture, the more incident radiant energy absorbed and less reflected energy.

Geomorphology:



A) Drilling data at Bariyatu region: Year 2004
  1. Top soil (yellow 0 3
  2. Top soil + Kankar + Weathered febsper 3-10
  3. Yellow clay + Kankar + Moistured soil - 10 14
  4. Greenish weathered - 14 20
  5. Clay + Kankar + Coarse sand - 20 28
  6. Coarse sand + weathered Rocks + few clay - 28 30
  7. Coarse sand + Weathered Rock + White febper - 30 - 50
  8. Felspathic Rock - 50 55
  9. Hard compact granite - 55 65
  10. Biotite granite gneiss hard - 65 110
  11. Hard Amphibolite schist - 112 170
  12. Hard granite schist - 170 195
B) Drilling data around Jumar Basin - Year 2001
  1. Top soil (Red Sandy soil) - 0 20
  2. Light ash colour soil - 20 70
  3. Hard olivine rock + olivine schist - 70 95
  4. White Felsper + Olivin schist - 95 110
  5. Hard biotite granite gneiss - 110 125
  6. Hard ultramafic rocks - 146
  7. Hard ultramafic Rock (Hard) - 155 180
C) Drilling data around another location of Bariyatu Year 2004
  1. Top soil (yellow) - 0 3 meter
  2. Highly weathered granitic rock - 05 20 meter
  3. Felspathic rock + semi hard - 25 30 meter
  4. Hard compact granite + granite gneiss - 31 40 meter
Report on Geophysical survey by Resistivity method around
(a) Specific gravity of sediment     (b) Obstruction of flow.

Remote sensing data and field data facilated, planning reclamation measure. The assessment measure using remote sensing technique are based on Tone, Texture, and physiographic recognition features. Factor considering are
(a) drainage,     (b) precipitation     (c) Elevation and     (d) Relief.





Conclusion:
  1. Monitoring of the area would help in analysis of water lagging and show to be helpful in suitable remedial measures.
  2. Remote Sensing and GIS are powerful tools used for slope measurement and rain water harvesting for recharging ground water potential.
  3. Rain water must be storage I tank or Ponds, so that water recharge maintain.
  4. Control of multistorage building in urban area and also maintain to spread converting work.
  5. Minimized/Restricted for deep boreholes in district.
  6. Improve sewage system for pollution of ground water
  7. Construction of bit, for artificial recharge of rain water.
Reference:
  1. Jounal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing Vol. 27, 28 Nov. 1,2 and 3 March 1999 June & September 2002.
  2. S.K. Jain, K.R. Das and Ranvir Singh, GIS for Estimation of Direct Runoff Potential IWRS Journal (996).
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  8. Ramalingam M. and Natrajan T. (2000); Indentification of Recharge Area using Remote sensing and GIS, NNRMS Bulletin (B) 24 Bangalore, India.